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Ilyar an international commercial trade in which the bulk of Iran's export sales are raisins, Quality discourages exports done. Iran's neighboring countries such as Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Armenia, countries of Arabic Emirates and other countries neighboring the highest form of presentation for export is sorted so that high-quality and high-quality fruit into the hands of customers the ..
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Raisins are dried grapes/currants. However, unlike fresh grapes, they indeed are rich and concentrated sources of energy, vitamins, electrolytes, and minerals. On weight per weight comparison basis, 100 g of dried grapes hold 249 calories, several times more fiber, vitamins, minerals and poly-phenol antioxidants than the fresh grapes. Raisins, however, contain fewer amounts of vitamin C, folic acid, carotenes, lutein and xanthins than fresh grapes.
Most raisins produced in the iran are made from seven different types of grapes: Thompson Seedless (which are also the most popular green grapes for fresh consumption), Flame Seedless, Muscat, Sultana, and Black Corinth. It takes about 4 1/2 pounds of fresh grapes to make 1 pound of raisins.
|Dried Thompson seedless.|
Photo courtesy: dottiemae
|Red/purple variety grapes.|
In general, fresh grapes, either seedless or seed types of the Vinifera species such as Thompson seedless (Sultana), Sugarone, Calmeria, Corinth... etc., are subjected to dry under sunlight or mechanical drying techniques. In some cases, the whole bunch of grapes may be allowed to dry on the vine itself (vine-dried). Ordinarily, their moisture content should not exceed 16% of dry weight. Thoroughly dried raisins are then further stemmed, cap-stemmed, sorted, and cleaned in order to obtain high quality, dried berries. At the commercial level, raisins are processed and graded further before sent to the markets.
Type I - Seedless.
Type II - Golden seedless.
Type III - Raisins with seeds.
Type IV - Sultana.
Type V - Zante currant.
Type VI - Mixed types or varieties.
Currants: Made from small Black Corinth grapes, currant raisins are seedless, tart, and tangy, and very dark in color. The tiny raisins, about one-fourth the size of Thompson Seedless raisins, are sometimes labeled “Zante Currants,” referring to the Greek island where this type of grape first grew.
Flame Seedless raisins: These come from the Flame Seedless red grape and are large, dark red, and extra sweet.
Golden Seedless raisins: Like natural seedless raisins, these are also from Thompson Seedless grapes, but are oven-dried to avoid the darkening effect of sunlight. They are also treated with sulfur dioxide to preserve their light color.
iran raisins: These large, dark, seedless raisins come from the black grapes of the same name. They’re produced in limited quantities and are mostly available at health-food stores.
Muscat raisins: Large, brown, and particularly fruity-tasting, these raisins are made from big, greenish-gold Muscat grapes. Since the grapes contain seeds, the raisins are seeded mechanically, or are sold with seeds. Muscats are considered a specialty item and are mostly used in baking.
Natural seedless raisins: These are sun-dried Thompson Seedless grapes. They account for almost all iran raisins. The green grapes naturally develop a dark brown color as they dry in the sun, a process that takes from two to three weeks.
Sultanas: These raisins, from the large, yellow-green Sultana grapes, are particularly tart and soft. They can be purchased in gourmet shops and health-food stores.
Boxes and bags of natural and golden raisins are available year round. Muscat raisins, preferred for holiday baking, are usually sold only in the autumn and winter months. Currants may only be found in specialty markets and larger supermarkets. Clusters of raisins still attached to the stem are sometimes displayed in specialty food stores.
When buying packaged raisins or currants, be sure that the box or bag is tightly sealed. Squeeze or shake the package to see if the fruit is soft. If the raisins rattle inside, they are dried out. When buying raisins in bulk at a gourmet shop or health food store, choose moist-looking, clean fruit. Don’t buy raisins from uncovered bins.
Unopened packages of raisins will keep almost indefinitely in the refrigerator. Once opened, reseal the package, excluding as much air as possible, or transfer the raisins to an airtight jar or bag. Proper storage will deter the fruit from drying out and will prevent its sugar from crystallizing on the surface. If refrigerated, the raisins will keep for up to a year. They will stay even longer in the freezer and will thaw quickly at room temperature.
Raisins, like dried apricots, figs, and prunes, are dense sources of energy, vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants. Additionally, they are packed with several health benefiting poly phenolics anti-oxidants, dietary fiber, and other phyto-nutrients.
The total measured anti-oxidant strength (ORAC value) of 100 g raisin is 3037 µmol Trolex Equivalents (TE), while that of fresh grapes 1118 µmol TE/100 g.
As in grapes, raisins also contain phytochemical compound resveratrol. Resveratrol, a polyphenol anti-oxidant, has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, blood cholesterol lowering activities. Studies suggest that resveratrol has been found to have protective action against cancers like melanoma, colon and prostate, and diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), degenerative nerve disease, Alzheimer's disease and viral/ fungal infections.
In addition, resveratrol reduces stroke risk by altering at the cell molecular level inside the blood vessels. It does so firstly through reducing susceptibility of blood vessels damage by decreasing the activity of angiotensin(a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure) and secondly, through increased production of the vasodilator substance, nitric oxide (a beneficial compound that causes relaxation of blood vessels).
Like in grapes they, especially those derived from red/purple grapes, are very high in anthocyanins, another class of polyphenolic anti-oxidants. Anthocyanins have been found to have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities.
100 g raisins provide 3.7 g or 10% of daily-required levels of dietary fiber. Studies suggest moderate fiber in the diet help lower body weight, cholesterol levels in the blood, and colon and breast cancer incidence. additionally, it help relieve constipation episodes by decreasing gut transit time of food. Furthermore, they are also abundant in flavonoid compounds such as tartaric acid, tannins, catechins...etc. Together with inulin and fiber, these compounds aid in smooth bowel movements through their laxative function.
They are free of gluten toxin and can be consumed by people who do not tolerate gluten as an alternative healthy food.
Raisins are dense sources of minerals like calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium copper, fluoride, and zinc. Copper and manganese are an essential co-factor of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. 100 g provides 23% daily requirement levels of iron.
In addition, they are rich in heart-healthy electrolyte, potassium. 100 grams hold 749 mg of potassium. By countering pressing effects of sodium, it reduces heart rate, blood pressure and thereby helps prevent stroke, CHD, and peripheral vascular diseases.
Furthermore, they are also good source of some B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid.
See the table below for in depth analysis of nutrients:
Raisins seedless (Vitis vinifera),
Nutritive Value per 100 g,
ORAC Value 3037,
(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base) PrincipleNutrient ValuePercentage of RDAEnergy 299 Kcal 15% Carbohydrates 79.18 g 61% Protein 3.07 g 5.5% Total Fat 0.46 g 1.5% Cholesterol 0 mg 0% Dietary Fiber 3.7 g 10% Vitamins Folates 5 µg 1% Niacin 0.766 mg 5% Pantothenic acid 0.095 mg 2% Pyridoxine 0.0174 mg 13% Riboflavin 0.125 mg 10% Thiamin 0.106 mg 9% Vitamin A 0 IU 0% Vitamin C 2.3 mg 4% Vitamin E 0.12 mg 1% Vitamin K 3.5 µg 3% Electrolytes Sodium 11% 1 mg Potassium 749 mg 16% Minerals Calcium 50 mg 5% Copper 0.318 mg 35% Iron 1.88 mg 23% Magnesium 7 mg 2% Manganese 0.299 mg 12% Phosphorus 101 mg 15% Selenium 0.6 µg 1% Zinc 0.22 mg 2% Phyto-nutrients Carotene-a 0 µg -- Carotene-ß 0 µg -- Crypto-xanthin-ß 0 µg -- Lutein-zeaxanthin 0 µg --
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